The chapel was part of the Carmelite convent of Libourne.
The first stone of the convent buildings arose March 19, 1840 by Father Charrier, pastor of Libourne and canon of St Andrew's Cathedral Bordeaux.
The monastery then develops on three streets alleys of the Republic to the southwest (now Robert Boulin aisles) Parmentier street Pliny the Southeast, the Jules Steeg in the East. Originally, the Carmelite chapel is reserved only for religious, but before the stress of the faithful of the neighborhood, the place of worship is open to residents in April 1842.
The built at the same time as the chapel monastery buildings were designed from the outset to be a Carmel, a place that religious not leave once pronounced their vows.
They must therefore find that sufficient on-site to their daily lives. The convent of Libourne therefore contained a backyard, a mill, a laundry, laundry.
It remains today as the chapel and a building housing the Municipal Police and commercial agency Calibus. The monastery buildings were destroyed after the last Carmelite who joined in 1972 the convent of Carmelite Prouillan Condom in Gers. In 1983, by decision of the City Council, the chapel becomes the temporary exhibition room of the Museum of Libourne.