A 1808 imperial decree gave the Jews of France official status and their worship was under the direction of a central consistory whose members were appointed by the Emperor.
A first makeshift synagogue built in 1822 rue Notre-Dame-de-Nazareth is reconstructed thirty years later at the same location despite James Rothschild's efforts to move into the building in the neighborhood of the Grange Bateliere.
The project will result in the Haussmann administration. The prefect, who had good relations with the Jewish community, while building permits, in Paris, two new synagogues, one in the Marais, rue des Tournelles and entrusted to architect Vaudremer, and the second, which incorporated the former Rothschild project, on land acquired by the city and bordered on one side by the rue de la Victoire and the other by the current street of Châteaudun.
Its construction (1865-1875) was left to Alfred-Philibert Aldrophe (1834-1895), then architect architecture department of the City of Paris, and was a key architect of the Jewish community in the late nineteenth century (construction of synagogues in Versailles and Enghien-les-Bains after 1880).
The interior decor, as befits a synagogue, contains no human or animal figure.
It is limited to the representation of the great biblical symbols and shows a number of religious inscriptions above the doors. In the choir vault read in French the names of the prophets (which was added that of the scribe Ezra) symbolizing the books of the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy).
We find, on top of walls, allegorical representations of the five books of the Pentateuch through images symbols forming the central motif of perforated stone roses illuminating the sanctuary.
The image of the harp, placed in the window above the Tablets of the Law, and returns the name of David inscribed in the bottom of furnace and probably Leviticus. In the lower part of the walls, twelve windows symbolizing the tribes of Israel complement the decor.
The main liturgical objects from the synagogue were offered to the Consistory by the Rothschild family. This is the case of the menorah (candelabrum with eight branches in money) given in 1874 by Gustave de Rothschild and perpetual lamp neoclassical style dated 1778, also in cash, which was donated by Baron James